Specific Job Descriptions:

Music law as it is practiced today involves a heavy emphasis on copyright and contract relationships between creative people and users of music in popular and standard areas. Typical of a day's work are the negotiation of a recording artist contract between an artist and recording company; a long-term management or agent agreement; a termination or amendment of a previous agreement; a musical synchronization license from music publisher to motion picture company; and assertion through audit (in conjunction with accountants) of royalty claims of a composer against a music publisher.

The basic challenge of the community arts manager is to integrate fully the arts into the social and economic fabric of his or her community. In a fiscal environment of competing priorities, the arts program must serve real needs and get a response from a strong constituency or it will not survive long. The manager must identify the various segment of a community, whether business, educational, youth, political, or religious. He or she must determine their needs and interests, and incorporate these values and needs into a viable program. The manager must, therefore, possess some working knowledge of governmental and community processes and be able to translate the benefits and the needs of the arts into concepts that are easily grasped by these community forces

As a behavioral science, community development owes its origin to the fields of education and social work. Community development activities include efforts to improve environments, descriptive studies, efforts with political motivation, efforts with religious motivation, and educational processes. Every activity contributes to one of two kinds of betterment: (1) changes in people's local, regional, and national environments through services and amenities; and (2) people becoming open to change and self-reliant, responsible, self-directing decision makers.

Composing requires you to develop as wide a range of skills as possible in addition to your compositional training. A composer, like a conductor, should have a broad, eclectic music background: solid performance skill on at least one instrument, thorough training in theory and music history (subjects you may very likely be teaching, at least at the beginning of your career), a practical working knowledge of instrumentation - in short, an undergraduate major in music and as much graduate work in composition as you can afford. A number of institutions offer first-rate doctoral programs in composition. It would be a good idea to investigate the requirements and offerings of such schools.

The term "educational composer" is commonly used to describe one who composes performance music and instructional materials for beginning, intermediate, and advanced students. Performance music includes works for all media, including concert bands, orchestras, choirs, jazz bands, marching bands, and various smaller ensembles. Instructional material includes method books that teach instrumental and vocal techniques, sight-reading, solo interpretation, theory, and all other areas of musical learning. Both areas include works for beginning, intermediate, and advanced students.


The career of a conductor can be associated with a wide spectrum of activities and responsibilities. At the level of the smaller community and metropolitan orchestras, the conductor may have to function as a jack-of-all-trades - raising funds, rehearsing, scheduling, and performing. As the orchestra increases in size, length of season, and budget, the conductor and music director tend to confine their activities to performing, programming, supervising personnel, and working in educational programs.

Music critics are a unique combination of journalist and musician. Their views are published daily, often providing quotations to be used as publicity for performing artists. They affect their audience both indirectly and directly—indirectly by determining which artists will survive in the performance media and will therefore be available for the public to choose from, and directly by influencing choices the public makes, its understanding of performances, and its reactions to them.

To put it simply, a film music editor helps a composer put his or her music on a soundtrack. When a motion picture is put together, there are three items on the soundtrack that have to be synchronized with the visual portion(dialogue, sound effects, and music. One person works with the dialogue; another does just the effects; and the music editor takes charge of the music portion. The producer and composer run the film and spot the music (choose where it should appear) throughout the film. The music editor then breaks this down into separate cues and times each cue for the composer, who takes these timing sheets and writes the music. The music editor takes the composer's sketches and gets the necessary information from them to set up the film for orchestra recording. The orchestra records the score, the music is cut into reels, and it is then ready for a final dub.

The best advice that can be given to any young person interested in preparing himself or herself for a career in the music publishing industry is to acquire as much knowledge as possible of the various music skills and the various mechanical procedures involved. To obtain the latter he or she should seek employment in a music publishing firm that maintains its own production and printing departments and then observe, ask questions, and remember what is being done and how.

Someone contemplating a career in music journalism should not major in music. You should address yourself to acquiring and polishing useful journalistic skills. "Music" is only the adjective, "journalism" is the noun; so major in journalism, English, humanities, languages, anything that will improve your word-handling abilities.

Ethnomusicologists, simply stated, are translators between an audience or population (e.g., mainstream Americans) and foreign music or musics. They provide insights, understandings, and bases for appreciation of this foreign expression. Their translation may take many forms(research, teaching, recordings with informative notes, films about an ethnic tradition, or even arts administration.

Although instrument making is called an industry, it is tiny in comparison with most other manufacturing industries. Consequently, the number of jobs in design and engineering is quite limited. Second, its products have nothing to do with convenient living; they are integral parts of a fine art and tightly bound by the traditions of that art.

Before one can repair any instrument, one must know a number of important things about it(the materials of which it is made, its construction, special characteristics, and so on. A good understanding of the way the instrument is played and of its fingerings is also essential. A music repairman must know what specialized and common tools to use and where tools and supplies can be obtained.

Although is it true that most positions in instrument sales require no music background but only selling ability, there is no denying that those who play music instruments, appreciate music, and possess the skills for production of music products have an advantage. Music instrument sales is one field in which a music background can be put to good use. Instruments used by grade schools, junior high, and senior high schools are sold best by a manufacturer's representative who is intimately acquainted with the school band and orchestra program. You don't have to be a music educator to be a good salesperson, but music education experience and skilled salesmanship are an unbeatable combination. You are, in effect, an educational consultant to the music dealers whom you contact. You can advise the local dealer on the kinds of products the school music teachers want. You can talk to educators about the qualities your product has over competitive lines. Before becoming a sales representative for a manufacturer, retail selling experience is valuable to get the feel of the retail end of the business.

Many music students in conservatories and universities are not made sufficiently aware of the practical aspects involved in making a living as a classical instrumentalist. The emphasis is frequently on competing on a soloist level with a view toward a glamorous career. In addition, however, theory, languages, academic subjects, and secondary piano should be required and taught on a high level.

Your background and education are important for a career as a performer of pop, rock, or jazz, but usually not as significant as talent, persistence, showmanship, and a little luck. Emotional maturity is another prerequisite and, of course, music training is definitely helpful. In pop, rock, and jazz the ear is and should be of prime importance; as a singer or instrumentalist, you should be able to execute what you hear. The musician who succeeds is the one who has mastered the technique of satisfying the particular audience he or she is aiming for, while not compromising his or her personal, unique vision and sound. Consequently, it is important that you expand your musical orbit by carefully listening to a wide variety of music, as these influences can provide ideas and inspiration for you.

A smoothly operating music library requires the coordination of numerous activities: circulation and retrieval of materials; answering reference questions and helping people locate information or materials; determining needs of library users and acquiring new materials; accepting and sorting gifts; budgeting; personnel management; cataloging and classifying books, scores, and recordings; maintaining the card catalogs; binding scores and parts; maintaining a collection of recordings; and servicing listening equipment. Depending on the size and type of library, these activities may be performed by one person or by a team.

Arts administrators are trained in one of the art forms: music, dance, drama, or the visual arts. The potential arts manager probably has organized events such as concerts, tours, performances, or guest lectures at one time or another. He or she has performed or worked in productions in school, in the home community, and most likely in a professional setting following undergraduate training. In school, the potential arts manager exhibited leadership ability and liked to work with groups of people to achieve common goals. At the same time, he or she could articulate well, could write clearly, and did well in mathematics. In addition, this person has come to see that he or she would be happier serving the arts as a manager, using creativity to improve those basic support systems that make it easier for the artist to produce the highest quality art on a regular basis.

Music publishing involves choosing materials to publish; editing and proofreading music manuscripts; promoting serious performance; and nurturing composers. Everything else is common to any other business with similar marketing and distribution procedures.

WANTED: Audio Engineer, great travel opportunities, work with big name stars and artists, making records, films, live concerts, etc. Excellent money, fame, and excitement! Must know basic electronics, tape machine maintenance, studio setups, remote recording experience. Must have knowledge of state-of-the-art equipment. Must be responsible for inventory control, assisting in scheduling, entertaining clients, etc. Hours from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m., seven days a week. Christmas off (if nothing is booked). Starting pay minimum wage.

With the field of recreation virtually untapped, people with arts, music, and theater degrees have a place to go. Although the generalist still may coordinate recreation programs in some areas of the country, the tide may be turning in favor of specialization in arts administration. A department often works directly with community arts groups, acting as a catalyst for their efforts. Among the community groups or activities that a department of recreation can help sponsor are children's puppet theaters, county-wide dance companies, county-wide arts shows, local symphony orchestras, community theaters, and local music groups.

A prospective employee for a retail music store should have sufficient music experience or training to be conversant with the majority of the standard repertoire and expert in one of its facets. This is especially true in those stores where one can expect to handle requests for many different instruments, vocal music, textbooks, and study scores. Areas of specific interest such as instrumental or vocal ensembles do not, as a rule, require such a wide range of knowledge.

Religious musicians view their work as a music ministry to members of the congregation and the community they serve. Behind this premise is the conviction that the use and expression of music in church liturgy is more a matter of congregational celebration and less a matter of specialized groups performing for an audience. The church musician, therefore, should be well prepared with an appreciation for the life and mission of the religion he or she serves. Administrative ability, interest and skill in working with people (usually volunteers and amateurs), as well as knowledge about the field of religious music (including traditional and contemporary literature and forms of expression), are important.

An electronic music synthesist creates, modifies, and controls sound electronically. Although he or she generally uses a keyboard to do this, a synthesist may adapt and use almost any acoustical instrument to control a synthesizer. With some additional training, virtually any musician can, in effect, become an electronic music synthesist, opening up career opportunities in education, performance, composition, production, software design, and electronic hardware design, movie commercials, radio TV jingles, etc.

The job of music supervisor/administrator encompasses a vast number of tasks that will vary daily and that usually are unpredictable. There are as many descriptions of this job as there are people trying to fill the position. For example, in a district of twelve elementary schools, the tasks of the music administrator would be quite different from those in a district of 60 or more schools that have grades K-12. Another variable is the title used to describe the music administrator's position. Some of the most common are director of music education, supervisor, coordinator, curriculum specialist, and music consultant.

The role of a music teacher in the college or university is highly diversified. Within a department or a school of music there are teachers of performance, theory, composition, history, and education. In some institutions you will find further specialization in areas of church music, music therapy, commercial music, and other allied fields.

If you love working with children and are musically gifted, you cannot find a more rewarding, enjoyable profession than teaching. A teacher's day is often long, starting quite early in the morning and often ending in the evening, especially if there are concerts or rehearsals to attend. But the satisfaction one can get from helping students learn and understand the beauty and power of music can carry a teacher through the toughest schedule. Most music education programs expose teachers in training to a variety of music skills, not just in the area they may prefer or specialize in. Teaching at the elementary and secondary levels requires that a teacher be flexible and multi-competent in instruments as well as vocal techniques, as teachers are often required to teach vocal and instrumental music at this level. Teachers also need to understand the development of children, and so are introduced to child development courses during college training.

One may be a general classroom music teacher in an elementary school, a high school orchestra director, or perform a combination of musical duties at a variety of grade levels. But despite the wide spectrum of specialties, all public school music teachers must be prepared educationally in the same manner, must compete in the same relative job market, and enjoy the same advantages and disadvantages of the career.

 Vocal music teachers work with individuals or groups of students, developing skills and techniques related to vocal performance. Instrumental music teachers work with students, either individually or in groups, teaching beginning, intermediate, and advanced technique classes, small ensembles, and band or orchestra rehearsal. These vocal and instrumental teachers work at the elementary level, the middle school level, and the high school level.

For those who love children and enjoy dealing with them on a personal level, private teaching offers great rewards. To be an independent music teacher, one needs to specialize in his or her major instrument. For the piano teacher, the suggested degree would be the bachelor of music in piano or piano pedagogy. The piano pedagogy degree offers the educational background, the opportunity to observe an experienced teacher working with classes, and the practical experience of actually teaching groups of children under supervision. This training proves invaluable when one opens his or her own studio.

A music therapist uses music in the therapy of human disabilities. Music therapists are most likely to be located in settings that normally employ other members of the helping professions such as physicians, clinical psychologists, social workers, and rehabilitation specialists. In these settings music therapists work either as team members or individually to assist their clientele to become healed, rehabilitated, or specially educated. Most music therapists do their work in hospitals, training centers for the developmentally disabled, rehabilitation centers, and(to a lesser extent(public and private elementary and secondary school settings.

There is no single route for a young student who has his or her eye on this music business, but it seems that an ideal background would incorporate college-level study in several areas: music business (copyright law, promotion, marketing, production), television production, graphic arts, visual design, and communications. A working knowledge of computer programming also would be an asset in today's technological careers.

Most pop vocalists earn their living in a variety of music areas - concerts, recordings, club work, radio and television commercials, Broadway musicals, and even teaching. Versatility is absolutely essential in this career, especially to the vocalist who may not have the good fortune to gain star status. Performance situations are competitive, often demanding years of experience to gain a solid reputation and a high level of proficiency. A vocalist who sings reasonably well, can sight-read, knows all styles of music, and has a solid knowledge of music theory is going to be in demand.